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DOCUMENT: TAIWAN.TXT
 

        A L L I A N C E   O F   T A I W A N   A B O R I G I N E S

                     5th Fl. 7 Cheng Kuong Rd. Sec 2
                             Yung Ho. Taiwan
                            Tel: (02) 9286120
                            Fax: (02) 9286120
 
 

                 REPORT OF ALLIANCE OF TAIWAN ABORIGINES

                    PRESENTATION TO THE UNITED NATIONS

                 WORKING GROUP ON INDIGENOUS POPULATIONS

                        FROM 19th to 30th OF JULY

                           GENEVA (SWITZERLAND)
 

      Name of Organization: Alliance of Taiwan Aborigines
      Address: 5F; 7 Cheng Kuong Rd., Sec. 2, Yung-Ho, Taipei, Taiwan
      Tel: (02) 928 6120
      Fax: (02) 928 6120

      Name of President: Mao Lung-Chang
      Aboriginal Name: Panu Chapmumu
      Title and Periodicity: Alliance of Taiwan Aborigines
      Date of Publication            Taipei, July 16, 1993
 

     Report of Alliance of Taiwan Aborigines in the World Conference
                on Human Rights, Vienna, 14-25 June, 1993

     FOREWORD:
     ---------

        Greetings to the representatives of Indigenous People
     from all over the World, and also to the participants from
     NEG. And I would like to thank all of You for sharing our
     experience on the issues of Aborigines to each other in this
     Conference.
 

     INTRODUCTION:
     -------------

        Now I will give You a brief introduction to my
     Organization -- "Alliance of Taiwan Aborigines" (ATA). ATA
     was organized and established on December 29, 1984 by a
     group of Taiwan Aborigines, missionaries and the Han-People
     who have the qualification of humanitarianism. We foresee
     that Taiwan Aborigines have suffered for a long time the
     unequal treatments from the economic exploitation, social
     discrimination, political oppression and negligence of
     culture. Taiwan Aborigines are really encountering on a
     crisis of the racial extermination. This Alliance is a
     social movement group who strives for the economic benefits,
     political rights and social position.

       Taiwan's total area is 35,981 square kilometers: 394 km in
     length and 144 km in width. Surrounded by the Pacific Ocean,
     its neighbors are China to the west, the Philippines to the
     south, and Japan to the north.

       Before 1620, only Indigenous Peoples occupied Taiwan. What
     follows is a summary of the colonial governments that have
     ruled Taiwan from 1624 to 1992:

     1) THE DUTCH AND SPANISH COLONIAL PERIOD (1624-1661)

       In 1624 and 1626, respectively, Holland and Spain invaded
     Taiwan with government-backed forces. They sought to
     subjugate the Indigenous Peoples with their superior
     material power and their fervor of religious Indoctrination.
     During this time, some of the Pinpu People lost their
     autonomy, but the vast majority of other Indigenous
     Communities remained unaffected.

     2) THE CHENG RULE AND THE MANCHU COLONIAL PERIOD (1661-1895)

       Cheng Chen-Kong waged war against the Dutch in a struggle
     to lay claim to Taiwan, and his subsequent victory ensured
     his position as colonizer. At the same time, the Chinese
     rulers were Non-Han Manchus, another ethnic minority within
     China. During Cheng's rule, his forces occupied the Western
     plains of Taiwan and a small part of the mountainous areas.
     Attempting to protect their land and tribal territorial
     lines, the Indigenous Peoples had countless conflicts with
     the Han, who were gradually invading the territory of the
     Indigenous Peoples and assimilating them. In 1885, without
     obtaining the consent of the people of Taiwan, the Manchu
     regime annexed Taiwan. In 1895, the mountains and the
     Eastern plains were still under the effective control of the
     Indigenous Peoples.

     3) THE JAPANESE COLONIAL PERIOD (1895-1945)

       In 1895, the Manchu government lost the Sino-Japanese War
     and signed the Treaty of Shimonoseki, ceding Taiwan to
     Japan. The Japanese government began to exploit Taiwan's
     economic resources through a systematic, capitalistic style
     of management; it was during this period that the
     subsistence lifestyle of the Indigenous Peoples began to
     crumble. In order to obtain control over Taiwan's forests,
     mineral resources, water and tourism potential, the Japanese
     rulers contained the Indigenous Peoples in "Mountain
     Reservations" thus slashing the traditional territory of
     2,000,000 hectares down to 24,000 hectares, to which the
     Indigenous Peoples had only utilization rights but could not
     claim permanent possession. In order to squash resistance
     from the Indigenous Peoples, the Japanese colonial
     government launched a large number of massacres. During the
     "Five-Year-Expedition" between 1910 and 1914, 10,000 Taroko
     People were massacred. In 1930, in the Wushe Rebellion, the
     Japanese attacked six Taroko Villages with airplanes,
     canons, machine guns and chemical weapons and massacred
     virtually all the men, women and children of the Villages.
     In order to assimilate the Indigenous Peoples, the Japanese
     government encouraged the Indigenous Peoples to use Japanese
     Names, and forced the children to speak Japanese under their
     compulsory elementary school program. It was during this
     Period that the traditional political, economic, cultural,
     and social systems of the Indigenous Peoples began to
     collapse.
 

     4) THE NATIONALIST (KMT) COLONIAL PERIOD (1949-PRESENT)

       After its defeat in World War II, Japan accepted the San
     Francisco Treaty and its stipulation that Japan renounce its
     rights to "Formosa and the Pescadores" on September 8, 1951,
     ending 50 years of colonial occupation. In 1949, the
     Nationalist (KMT) militarist regime, after its defeat by the
     Communist government, fled to Taiwan. In order to
     consolidate its rule, the Nationalist government massacred
     thousands of Indigenous, Minan, and Hakka intellectuals in
     the early 1950 and imposed martial law, which was not lifted
     until 1987. In its Policies toward the Indigenous Peoples,
     the KMT is the direct heir of its totalitarian and colonial
     Japanese predecessor, and indeed surpasses the latter in
     planning and implementing its policies. More discussion will
     be devoted to this subject in the next section.

       After this short introduction to the history of Taiwan's
     colonial governments, and before proceeding, we, as members
     of Taiwan's Indigenous Peoples, have the obligation to
     inform the governments and Indigenous Peoples
     representatives who are attending this World Conference, as
     well as members of the United Nations, of the fact that, as
     the government of the People's Republic of China (PRC) has
     never ruled Taiwan. Taiwan belongs to the 20 million people
     of the island -- Taiwan does not belong to China.
 

               THE CURRENT HUMAN RIGHTS SITUATION OF THE
                     INDIGENOUS PEOPLES IN TAIWAN:
 

     1) HUMAN RIGHTS AND KMT POLICIES

       The government that rules Taiwan today is named the
     "Republic of China", known as the KMT regime by both
     Indigenous activists and the opposition party. The KMT
     Constitution, implemented in 1947, was legislated in China
     and is therefore, we have no right to self-determination and
     no collective rights as a group. The basic Policy Of the KMT
     government toward the Indigenous Peoples is one of
     artificial assimilation, aiming at the complete effacement
     of the Indigenous Peoples' consciousness of their own
     history, culture and language. Taiwan's government does not
     recognize the ethnic status of the tribes  and our
     historical position in Taiwan; it has deprived our
     traditional right to the land and our traditional
     sovereignty.

     2) POLITICAL RIGHTS

       Taiwan's government has deprived the Indigenous Peoples of
     our political, cultural, economic, educational and social
     autonomy. In terms of Political Participation, it has
     designed a system of "protective quotas", symbolically
     handing the Indigenous Peoples a few seats in Taiwan's
     legislative bodies. In the parliament, where the majority
     rules, the rights and welfare of the Indigenous Peoples are

     completely at the mercy of the Han majority, a fact which
     renders our quotas little more than political ornament. The
     parliament can give no real expression to the Will of the
     Indigenous Peoples. The rights of Political Participation
     for the Indigenous Peoples are manipulated by the KMT regime
     in specific and the Han people in general. Therefore,
     Taiwan's political system is entirely under the control of
     the KMT and the Han people; Indigenous Peoples have
     absolutely no voice, let alone autonomy, in such a political
     system.

     3) LEGAL RIGHTS

       When Indigenous Peoples have asserted their original
     rights, colonial governments have always been quick to
     negate these rights with the laws that they themselves have
     created. To this day, Indigenous Peoples have no legal
     status; many laws claim to protect the interests of
     Indigenous Peoples when, in really, they are wielded to
     destroy the Indigenous Peoples as ethnic groups and take way
     our rights.

       In 1987, the KMT government lifted martial law, and put in
     its place "National Security Law", which continues to impose
     many restrictions upon the mountain areas inhabited by
     Indigenous Peoples. Martial Law continues to rule these
     areas, Nothing illustrates the pervasive ignorance and
     oppression prevalent in this legal system more accurately
     than the complete absence of any multicultural consideration
     in Han law. All the laws of Taiwan are legislated according
     to the values of the Han people. The common laws of the
     Indigenous Peoples are neither incorporated into nor
     acknowledged by the laws of this land. The legal system,
     only serves the Han people at the expense of the Indigenous
     Peoples.

     4) LAND OWNERSHIP AND ECONOMIC RIGHTS

       In recent years, under the current government's policy of
     massive development of the areas in question, demand and
     exploitation has occurred on several fronts: forested land
     has been assigned to the management of the Bureau of
     Forestry, land with mining potential has been claimed as
     national property; areas noted for their natural beauty and
     tourism potential have been designated national parks; and
     the Ministry of Defense has appropriated vast tracts of land
     from the Indigenous Peoples under the pretext of national
     security. The last pieces of land upon which the Aborigines
     rely for their survival have been taken away, and their
     consent was never sought in the process. In order to build
     national parks, industrial zones, and reservoirs, the
     government forcibly relocated Aborigine tribes such as Fu-
     Shih village of Shou-Lin County, Hualien, in the case of the
     Taroko National Park; Mei-Shan Village of Taoyuan County,
     Kaohsiung, in the case of the Yu-Shan National Park; the
     ancestral graves of the Bunun tribe in Tong-Pu Village,
     Shin-Yi County, Nantou; the village within the Ho-Ping
     cement industrial district in Shou-Lin county, Hualien; and
     the Hao-Cha village in Wu-Tai county, Pin-Tung, in the case
     of Wu-Tai Reservoir; to name only a few. After government
     policy is formulated, the Indigenous People involved have
     absolutely no channel through which to express their
     opinion, indeed lacking the very right to do so. In a word,
     virtually all land with development value has been occupied
     and exploited.

       Every year Indigenous Peoples from various parts of the
     island, uninformed of or unable to obey these laws, are
     punished legally and often must serve 2-3 year prison
     sentences. Deprived of their resources and lands, Indigenous
     Peoples can no longer take out a living in their traditional
     tribal villages. Large numbers of those who are capable of
     physical labor have flowed toward the industrial towns and
     cities to become laborers.

       According to the official statistics in 1989, 48.8% of the
     Indigenous People are agricultural workers, while the rest
     work in Non-agricultural Professions. The vast majority of
     the Indigenous Peoples who become city-dwellers enter labor-
     intensive jobs that require little or no technical training
     and tend to be low in both status and pay. The men are
     primarily workers in wood and steel manufacturing, truck
     drivers, miners, and deep-sea fishermen, while most women
     become electronic and textile workers. These industries are
     among the most labor-exploitative industries in Taiwan. Many
     Indigenous Workers frequently find that their pay is
     withheld without reason. They have neither labor insurance
     nor a pension, and are constantly threatened by
     unemployment.

     5) CULTURAL AND EDUCATIONAL RIGHTS

       The Indigenous Peoples were not only unable to reclaim
     their ancestral names, but under the assimilationist policy
     of the Taiwan government, they were denied even the right to
     register their citizen identification with their traditional
     names. The family organization of each Indigenous People,
     once perfectly clearly described by our traditional system
     of names, has completely disappeared.

       The Cultural Gardens of the Indigenous Peoples, designed
     as a museum, is being built and managed by the KMT
     government. It is being built upon land bought at a price
     far below market value from the local Indigenous Population,
     and its commercial attraction is to put existing Indigenous
     Cultures on display for tourist consumption.

       For the last forty years, children have been forbidden to
     speak their own language in the schools, let alone learn
     that Language as part of their education. All the textbooks
     for elementary and middle schools are homogenized and edited
     by the government, and thus are devoid of any references to
     the culture, history and ethnic consciousness of the
     Indigenous Peoples. Only 0.3% of the Indigenous Peoples had
     received a college education in 1989, while 5.8% of the Han
     population already had college degrees in 1978. All in all,
     the educational system systematically discriminates against
     the children of the Indigenous People.

     6) SOCIAL RIGHTS

       In 1978, the government, in a blatant deception of the
     Yami people of the island of Lan-Yu, announced the
     construction of a military harbor and widely publicized the
     employment opportunities such a project would bring. The
     unsuspecting Amis joined the construction project willingly,
     only to find out after its completion that the project was
     actually a nuclear waste dump. Currently Taiwan has three
     nuclear plants -- the construction of a fourth one is
     pending -- and all of Taiwan's nuclear waste is dumped on
     Lan-Yu. Since this site has reached full capacity, the
     government is now planning expansion of the site. The Yami
     people are putting up stiff opposition, and the conflict is
     still unresolved. Without garnering the benefits of nuclear
     power, the Yami are yet tricked into shouldering the immense
     risk of a nuclear disaster - this is a classic case of
     racial discrimination and deserves international censure.

       Last of all, a significant portion of Indigenous girls and
     young women have absolutely no human rights whatsoever.
     Bought and sold as child prostitutes, they are in every
     sense the victims of an established system of slavery with
     which the entire Han society is complicitious. Aged from 9
     to 18, these girls are estimated to account for 20% of the
     child and adolescent prostitutes in Taiwan, a prosperous
     market that is part of the vast and ubiquitous Taiwan
     industry which thrives upon the sexual exploitation of
     women. Given hormonal shots, beaten, tortured, and
     repeatedly raped on a daily basis, these girls live entirely
     outside modern society and the rudiments of Human Rights by
     which such a society supposedly defines itself. The survival
     of our race are reduced to commodities and denied their
     right to existence as human beings.
 

             THE ACTIVITIES OF TAIWAN ABORIGINAL MOVEMENT

       From 1984, there are a series of campaigns raised by
     Alliance of Taiwan Aborigines (ATA) on the following issues:

     1) NAME CORRECTION MOVEMENT (ON DEC. 1984 AND MAY. 1992)

       We raised the issue to the public of deciding who are the
     Aborigines of Taiwan, also developed the campaign to request
     to be called Aborigines in the official documents and in
     general usage, instead of the discriminative slangs like
     mountain people and mountain fellows.

     2) SAVE THE YOUNG ABORIGINAL WOMEN IN PROSTITUTION (ON JAN.
        1988)

       Because there are so many young Indigenous women were sold
     to the city as prostitutes by the illegal bargainers, the
     women organization and ATA developed the campaign to raise
     the public concerns and to push our government to face the
     problems of the Human Right violations and social-economic
     inequality to the Indigenous People.

     3) RECOVER OUR ABORIGINAL NAME SYSTEM (ON JAN. 1987)

       The name system of Taiwan Aborigines and Han people are
     very different, though that, the government forced us to
     change our traditional one and accept the letter 40 years
     ago. Because the confusion of the name system, it causes
     that there are different last names in the same brotherhood.
     So we push our government to return our Aboriginal name to
     be used in the national affairs and in the society.

     4) GET NUCLEAR WASTE OUT OF LAN-YU (ON FEB./APR. 1988/MAY.
        1993)

       The government ignored the living rights of the Indigenous
     People in Lan-Yu, and began to dump the wastes of the
     Nuclear power plants to their land 10 years ago. And the
     thing is Still going on. We have developed several local
     campaigns to protest, also seeked the concerns from the
     International Indigenous People. So we now propose to draft
     a brief declaration under the name of NGO to accuse of the
     evil of our government.

     5) RETURN MY LANDS (ON AUG. 1988/SEP. 1989)

       The most of our ancestral lands have been occupied by the
     brutal force of State for 40 years. Foreseeing that lands
     are the most important resources of the Indigenous People,
     we have developed a series of campaigns to fight for our
     lost lands and to protect the land right by our traditional
     custom laws. And the fight is still going in the Parliament.

     5) ANTI-WU-FENG MYTH (ON AUG. 1985/FROM SEP. TO DEC. 1987)

       Wu-Feng is a faked hero invented by the Han People to
     distort the humanity of the Indigenous People. To eliminate
     the discrimination and the racism, we request the Dept. of
     Education to delete the Wu-Feng Myth from the elementary
     school textbooks.

     7) ANTI-STATE-PARK-ESTABLISHMENT IN THE ABORIGINAL LANDS
        (ON MAY. 1993)

       We have hold 2 press conference in the Parliament to
     emphasized that the Indigenous People have their own rights
     to develop their lands and their cultures without the
     intervention of State power. So we also push our senators to
     cut budget of State-Park-Establishments.

     8) TO RAISE THE ISSUES ON SELF-DETERMINATION AND TO PROPOSE
        THE INDIGENOUS PEOPLE ACT IN NEW-CONSTITUTION-DRAFTING
        MOVEMENT (ON DEC. 1992-PRESENT)

       Foreseeing the awareness among the Taiwan Aborigines on
     their land right, their cultures and their humanity, and
     also the tendency of International Indigenous People
     Movements. Especially this year 1993 is the year of
     universal Indigenous Peoples, we think that it is the time
     to focus our future on the rights of living and development
     of the Indigenous Peoples, and to push ourself in a more
     radical way. So we, ATA is ready to develop a series of
     campaigns on this issue in the near future.
 

                              CHALLENGES

       The Alliance of Taiwan Aborigines faces a number of
     Challenges during 1993:

       1) The challenge of allowing the Aboriginal Original Name,
          the Aborigines shall have the right to decide who is
          Aborigines.

       2) The challenge to upgrade Authorities of Autonomy and
          competent administrative Authorities of Aborigines
          Affairs to the Central Class.

       3) The Challenge of allowing the Aboriginal People to use
          their own original name in the National Affairs and the
          Society.

       4) The Challenge of the Declaration on the rights of Asian
          Indigenous/Tribal Peoples: We are of the Land.

       5) The Challenge of the Declaration on the rights of Asian
          Indigenous/Tribal Peoples:  We assert that we know what
          self-determining communities are.  We demand that all
          recognize that we have always been self-determining.
 

                              CONCLUSION

       We, Alliance of Taiwan Aborigines believe and have
     continued to participate with the Taiwan Aborigines in our
     quest for freedom, just, and peace. We give thanks for the
     support and encouragement of many friends around the world.
 

                               APPENDIX
 

            THE DISTRIBUTION OF TAIWAN'S INDIGENOUS PEOPLES
 

                           TRIBE POPULATION
                           ----------------
                           Taroko     30,000
                           Amis      129,220
                           Paiwan     60,434
                           Tayal      48,957
                           Bunun      38,267
                           Puyuma      8,132
                           Tsou        5,797
                           Saisiat     4,194
                           Thao          248
                           Rukai       8,007
                           Yami        4,335

                      Total Population:  337,342
 

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